Not all financial institutions are created equal, but most of these organizations focus on the same areas of the debenture review process. Potential borrowers need to learn what projections, narratives, and documentation they will need to prepare loan packages. Whether the individual is applying to a traditional bank for:

  • A real estate financing
  • An equipment debenture
  • A short-term commercial credit
  • AN LOC for a working capital
  • A home equity credit
  • Other kinds of consumer or commercial debentures

Keys of debenture applications

The most essential characteristics prospective lending firms usually concentrate on will include the following:

  • Character
  • Credit history
  • Collateral readily available to help secure the credit
  • Cash flow projections and history of the enterprise
  • Debenture documentation include personal and business financial statements, business plans, and income tax returns. It sums up and provides evidence for the items mentioned above

The first three of these criteria are objective information. However, the interpretation of these numbers can be subjective. The borrower’s character allows lending firms to make more subjective assessments of their company’s market appeal, as well as their business savvy. In assessing whether to provide funds to small businesses, lending firms are usually willing to consider individual elements that represent weaknesses or strengths for loans.

Tools or apps to use

To provide individuals with a better look at what financial institutions usually focus on when assessing debenture requests, the Forms and Tools section contains sample business debenture application forms that are usually the type of documents people will need to complete as a part of their loan application bundle. Most platforms also include internal bank credit review forms used by community banks to make their own review of small business debentures.

Credit history

Lending firms will want to check the credit history of the company (if the enterprise is not a startup) and the individual’s personal credit history because personal guarantees are usually required for small business debentures. Experts recommend potential borrowers get reports on themselves and their company before they apply for a loan.

If the borrower discovers any problems or inaccuracies, they can correct them before damages to the debenture application have happened. If they can, find out which reporting firms their prospective lending firm uses and request reports from these companies.

Assessing the business credit history

Before people apply for commercial loans, they need to check the credit report of their company, if their enterprise has been in existence for some time. They can get free Business Info Reports on their own company from credit reporting firms like Experian. If reports firms do not yet have info on the borrower, these firms will allow them to voluntarily get listings by providing them with basic info about their company.

Most traditional lending firms will expect at least four to five trade experiences listed on these reports before they consider the company’s creditworthiness. If their business has been operating without credits or with personal assets, they need to consider making some purchases to establish a good credit history for the company.

Assessing the consumer credit history

Credit firms are required to remove information from reports that can’t be verified or are inaccurate. But before individuals submit letters disputing debts to the credit report firms, it is usually an excellent idea to contact relevant creditors directly.

If an error is made, individuals can usually clear up these disputes a lot quicker if they take the initiative. If these disputes are not resolved, and the report is not adjusted, people have the right to file an explanation or statement regarding the alleged loans with the report’s firm.

If the report has some issues with it, they can request creditors with homes that have an excellent history but who didn’t report transactions be added to these reports. For a small fee, most of these bureaus will add more creditor info.

Providing collateral to get a debenture

When it comes to getting secured loans, providing physical assets for collateral is very important. To financial institutions like traditional banks, collateral is defined as properties that can secure debentures or other debts, so lending firms can seize it if borrowers fail to make timely payments on their loans. To know more about this topic, check out sites like forbrukslån kalkulator for details.

Knowing and understanding guarantee options

When financial institutions demand collateral for secured debentures, they are looking to lower the risks of extending loans. To make sure that the guarantee provides enough security, lending firms will want to match the kind of collateral with the debenture being made.

The usefulness of the collateral will usually have to exceed or meet the term of the debenture. Otherwise, the lending firm’s secured interest would be at risk. Consequently, assets like inventory and receivables will not be accepted as a guarantee for long-term loans, but they are good for short-term loans like LOC or Line of Credit.

In addition, most lending firms will require that their claim is a first secured interest. It means that no superior or prior liens exist or be created against the said collateral. By being the priority lien holder, financial institutions make sure the share of foreclosure proceeds before other claimants are entitled to the funds.

Protecting the collateral

Properly recorded interests in personal properties or real estate are public records. Because creditors want to have priority claims on the collateral being offered to secure the debenture properly, creditors will search public records to ensure that claims have not been filed against it in the past. If the borrower uses real estate as collateral, the search of public records is usually done by title insurance firms.

Companies prepare title reports that reveal pre-existing secured interests or other title issues. If personal properties appropriately secure the debenture, creditors usually run a search of public records to reveal pre-existing claims. The costs of a U.C.C or title search is usually passed on to prospective borrowers as part of loan-closing costs.

In startup enterprises, commonly used collateral is the real estate’s equity value. Borrowers may take out a new or even a second housing loan on their residence. In some areas, financial institutions can help protect security interests in real estate by retaining the title of the property until the housing loan is fully paid.

Determining loan-to-value (LTV) ratios

To limit the risks, financial institutions usually discount the value of the loan’s collateral, so they are not extending 100{cc26561dafcabebe78468bba5e12fef8c9f8b25f0a1beb80ebf40c75a465d043} of the property’s highest market value. The relationship between the amounts of funds the financial institution lends to the collateral’s value is called LTV or Loan-to-Value or LTV ratio.

The kind of guarantee being used to secure the debenture will have a huge effect on the bank’s acceptable LTV ratio. For instance, unimproved real estate properties will get a lower LTV ratio compared to occupied and improved real estate.

The ratio can differ between financial institutions, and the LTV ratio may also be influenced by criteria set by lenders other than the collateral’s value. The borrower’s healthy cash flow can allow more leeway in the LTV ratio. A representative listing of LTV ratios for various collateral at traditional banks is:

Real estate

If the property is occupied, lending institutions might provide up to 75{cc26561dafcabebe78468bba5e12fef8c9f8b25f0a1beb80ebf40c75a465d043} of the appraised value. If the real estate property is improved and not occupied like the planned new residential subdivision with water and sewer, but there are no houses yet, up to 50{cc26561dafcabebe78468bba5e12fef8c9f8b25f0a1beb80ebf40c75a465d043} of the appraised value. For unimproved and vacant properties, up to 30{cc26561dafcabebe78468bba5e12fef8c9f8b25f0a1beb80ebf40c75a465d043}.


Lending institutions may advance up to 60{cc26561dafcabebe78468bba5e12fef8c9f8b25f0a1beb80ebf40c75a465d043} to 80{cc26561dafcabebe78468bba5e12fef8c9f8b25f0a1beb80ebf40c75a465d043} of the value for a ready-to-go retail inventory. The inventory that consists of parts and other unfinished materials might be only 30{cc26561dafcabebe78468bba5e12fef8c9f8b25f0a1beb80ebf40c75a465d043}. The vital factor is the merchantability of products – how quickly, as well as how much money this inventory can be sold in the market.


Marketable bonds and stocks can be used as collateral to get up to 75{cc26561dafcabebe78468bba5e12fef8c9f8b25f0a1beb80ebf40c75a465d043} of the property’s market value. Remember that the debenture proceeds can’t be used to buy additional stocks.